Factory farming causes the most suffering to the largest number of animals in Australia – more than 500 million sentient beings every year.1
What is a factory farm?
Today, very few animals roam freely on traditional farms. Most animals suffer behind the closed doors of large industrial facilities known as factory farms. On factory farms animals are kept in a state of permanent confinement, crammed together in cages or sheds for the entire duration of their short lives.2 Producers also use a variety of artificial methods to increase production, such as the constant administration of antibiotics, the use of artificial lighting and selective breeding.3
The purpose of intensive farming is simply to produce the most meat, eggs and dairy at the lowest possible cost. This focus on cost-cutting invariably comes at the expense of the health and welfare of individual animals whose pain and distress are completely disregarded in the pursuit of profit.4
Animal farming is big business
Over the past fifty years, meat consumption has increased steeply while the number of meat producers has significantly reduced. This means that most animal farming no longer happens on small family farms – it is now big business.
Australians eat ten times more chicken than we did in 1960,5 but the number of chicken farms in Australia has plummeted and over 70% of the market is now supplied by just two corporations.6 Similarly, over the last 40 years pig meat production has increased by over 50%7 while the number of pig producers has dropped from 40,0008 to just 1,868.9
This concentration means that individual corporations can be responsible for over one million animals at any one time.10 The sheer scale of this business transforms animals from sentient individuals into faceless units of production.
In reality, the animals who we use for food are emotionally complex, intelligent beings with rich experiences of the world.11 Most will never see the sun, feel the earth under their feet, nurture their young, build a nest, roost, forage for food or socialise as nature intended.
Instead they are permanently confined in cages or packed together in such large numbers they struggle to find space to move or reach their food. On factory farms, baby animals are mutilated without pain relief – the tails, teeth and genitalia of piglets12 and the beaks of chicks are brutally clipped,13 as well as the horns,14 tails,15 and testicles16 of calves – because it is practical, cheap and, alarmingly, lawful to do so.
In Australia, not all animals are equal under the law: many practices which would qualify as animal cruelty if performed on a dog or cat are perfectly legal if performed on a pig or chicken who is being raised for food.
While each state and territory has animal cruelty legislation in place, significant exemptions exist for the treatment of farm animals. This is because the law defines the acceptable treatment of animals according to their use rather than their capacity to suffer. For example, NSW law17 makes it an offense to not provide an animal with adequate exercise except if that animal is a cow, sheep, goat, pig or chicken.
Factory farming isn’t just hurting animals
Food production has a massive negative impact on the environment, but the production of meat, dairy and, to a lesser extent, eggs has a particularly disproportionate effect on our climate and natural resources.18
Efforts to quantify the effect livestock production has on climate change range with the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation estimating livestock production is responsible for 18% of greenhouse gas emissions,19 while other measures put the figure closer to 50%.20 Either way, livestock production contributes a bigger share of greenhouse gas emissions than the entire global transport sector.21
The most significant source of these greenhouse gas emissions is from methane produced by animal digestion. In Australia this process creates about three million tonnes of methane annually. Over the next 15 years, this methane will have a greater effect on global warming than emissions from all of Australia’s coal fired power stations combined.22
Animal agriculture also has a devastating impact on our environment because of the huge amount of water and resources it wastes. The average ‘water footprint’ per calorie of protein from beef is six times larger than for legumes.23 Moreover, in order to produce 1kg of meat protein, an average of 6kg of plant protein is required.24
Not only is meat production wasteful in this way, it is also destructive. Around 30% of the total land surface of the planet is now used for livestock production. Meat is a key driver of deforestation, with 70% of previously forested land in the Amazon now occupied by pastures and feedcrops for livestock.25
Lifting the veil
Animal industries operate with very little transparency, but there is hope.
In 2014, the ACT became the first Australian state or territory to legislate against certain factory farming practices through passage of the Animal Welfare (Factory Farming) Amendment Act. This law prohibits the use of cages for commercial egg production, the debeaking of chickens and the use of sow stalls and farrowing crates for pigs. It is time for the rest of the country to follow suit.
As consumers are learning the truth behind their food, the call for change is growing louder. In 2011, 83% of Australians said they support or strongly support laws to ensure food animals have access to the outdoors, companions, natural materials and enough space to carry out their instinctive behaviour.26 Beyond the law, caring consumers have the power to end the cruelty of factory farming simply by refusing to buy into it.
You can take action against factory farming by:
- Learning more – Find out more about the factory farming of pigs, meat chickens and battery hens and ducks.
- Making humane choices – Make the switch to animal-free alternatives.
- Contacting your MP – Tell your MP that you support a ban on factory farming practices in your state.
- Donating to Voiceless – Help us continue to provide a voice for animals by donating today.
- 1. This figure is based on chicken meat figures alone. In 2014/15, 611.7 million chickens were slaughtered for their meat. The Australian Chicken Meat Federation Inc estimates up to 16% of those birds were raised in free range or organic systems. This means 513,828,000 million chickens were raised intensively on factory farms during this period. See Australian Chicken Meat Federation Inc, ‘Growing Meat Chickens’ and ‘Industry Facts and Figures’, <http://www.chicken.org.au/>.
- 2. See for example Battery Hens and Pigs.
- 3. See for example Voiceless, the animal protection institute (Voiceless), ‘From Nest to Nugget: An exposé of Australia’s chicken factories’, 11 - 12 <https://www.voiceless.org.au/sites/default/files/from_nest_to_nugget_report_online_final.pdf>.
- 4. John McInerney, ‘Animal Welfare, economics and policy - Report on a study undertaken for the Farm & Animal Health Economics Division of Defra’ (2004) <http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130402151656/http://archive.defra.gov.uk/evidence/economics/foodfarm/reports/documents/animalwelfare.pdf>.
- 5. Australian Chicken Meat Federation Inc, ‘Industry Facts and Figures’, <http://www.chicken.org.au/page.php?id=4>.
- 6. Baiada Poultry Pty Limited and Inghams Enterprises Pty Limited supply more than 70% of Australia’s broiler chickens. See Australian Chicken Meat Federation, ‘Structure and Ownership’, <http://www.chicken.org.au/page.php?id=2>.
- 7. Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘Table 12. Red Meat Produced – Pig Meat: All Series (tonnes)’, 7218.0.55.001 - Livestock and Meat, Australia, Feb 2015 (9 April 2015) <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/7218.0.55.001Feb%202015?OpenDocument>.
- 8. Productivity Commission 2005, Australian Pigmeat Industry, Report no. 35 (18 March 2005), 9 <http://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/pigmeat-2005/report/pigmeat.pdf>.
- 9. Of those, 435 producers are responsible for 96% of pork production: Debb Kerr (Policy Advisor for Australian Pork Limited), Presentation to Sydney University Law Society on ag-gag laws (16 April 2015).
- 10. Chicken farmers Gerry and Chris Apostolatos pleaded guilty to starving more than one million chickens in their care in 2015. See Shannon Derry, ‘Chickens forced into cannibalism in shocking case of animal cruelty’, Herald Sun (25 March 2015) <http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/chickens-forced-into-cannibalism-in-shocking-case-of-animal-cruelty/story-fni0fee2-1227278428921>.
- 11. See Animal Sentience
- 12. Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals - Pigs (revised) (2007) (‘the Pig Code’), section 4.1 and Appendix 3.
- 13. Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals- Domestic Poultry, (4th Edition) (2002) (‘the Poultry Code’), section 5.
- 14. Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals- Cattle, (2th Edition) (2002) (‘the Cattle Code’), section 5.8.
- 15. Ibid, section 5.6.
- 16. Ibid, section 5.4.
- 17. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1979 (NSW), s 9.
- 18. Karen Soeters, ‘Foreward’ in Karen Soeters (ed) Meat The Future (Nicolaas G. Pierson Foundation, 2015), 11.
- 19. Henning Steinfeld et al, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (2006, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) xxi. This figure refers only to anthropogenic emissions and has been the subject of much debate and discussion with the global meat industry has investing heavily in efforts to debunk the UN’s statistics. (See here: <http://www.theguardian.com/environment/blog/2010/mar/24/un-meat-report-climate-change>). Much of this debate is dependent on particulars of methodology, difficulties of quantification and differing assumptions about the role of methane, a gas which accounts for a large proportion of livestock emissions and has a particularly potent effect on warming.
- 20. Robert Goodland and Jeff Anhang, ‘Livestock and Climate Change’, WorldWatch (November/December) 11 <http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/Livestock%20and%20Climate%20Change.pdf>.
- 21. Steinfeld et al, above n 19.
- 22. Barry Brook and Geoff Russell, ‘Meat’s Carbon Hoofprint’ (2007) Australasian Science (November/December) 38 <http://www.control.com.au/bi2007/2810Brook.pdf>.
- 23. Arjen Y. Hoekstra, ‘The Meat Eater, a Big Water User’ in Karen Soeters (ed) Meat The Future (Nicolaas G. Pierson Foundation, 2015), 93.
- 24. This protein conversion depends on the type of animal under consideration, as well as the prevailing conditions. See Harry Aiking, ‘Food Security – What is New?’ in Karen Soeters (ed) Meat The Future (Nicolaas G. Pierson Foundation, 2015), 21.
- 25. Ibid, 22.
- 26. This consumer survey of 1000 randomly selected Australians was commissioned by Voiceless and conducted by Pure Profile in September 2011.